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Fungi

Fungi are eukaryotic organisms lacking chlorophyll and vascular tissue and include mushrooms, yeasts, molds and smuts. Despite their inclusion in this list with the bryophytes, fungi are more closely related to organisms of the kingdom Animalia than those of the Plantae. The IUCN Red List 2010 recognises two critically endangered species of Fungi.

Boreal felt lichen (Erioderma pedicellatum)
A foliose cyanolichen (one of the symbotic organisms is a cyanobacteria, the other is an ascomycete fungus) historically found on the Atlantic coast and the Pacific coast of Alaska. The lichen has an estimated generation time of around 30 years; over a period of three generations (~100 years) populations disappeared entirely from several study sites. The last considerable population occurs in Newfoundland. The species is particularly vulnerable given its narrow habitat requirements and low rates of growth and reproduction. (Photo © Ian Goudie).

[1] Scheidegger, C. 2003. Erioderma pedicellatum. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.

Funcia di basilicu (Pleurotus nebrodensis)
A mushroom which occurs explicity on limestone in Northern Sicily in an area of less than 100km^2, and then in fragmented populations. The fungus has a slow rate of reproduction, with less than 250 individuals reaching maturity every year. Its rarity makes it an expensive delicacy which in turn encourages mushroom gatherers. (Photo © Mushroom Observer).

[1] Venturella, G. 2006. Pleurotus nebrodensis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.

Bryophytes

Bryophytes, more commonly known as liverworts, mosses and hornworts, are non-vascular plants which generally favour moist habitats, though various species do occur in most terrestrial habitats including deserts. Bryopthytes are distinguished from vascular plants by their lack of xylem and phloem (the vascular tissue) and the sporophyte (the spore-producing body) being dependent on the gametophyte (the easily visible and more familiar body of the plant). The species listed below are universally threatened by habitat loss.

Taxitheliella richardsii
Occurs in an area of less than 10km^2.

[1] Bryophyte Specialist Group 2000. Taxitheliella richardsii. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.

Thamnobryum angustifolium
A species endemic to the United Kingdom which occurs within an area of 10km^2. The threats to this species are numerous and include footpath development, climbers, collectors and dessication.

[1] Bryophyte Specialist Group 2000. Thamnobryum angustifolium. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.

Vandiemenia ratkowskiana
A liverwort endemic to the island of Tasmania, Australia. It occurs in an area of less than 10km^2.

[1] Bryophyte Specialist Group 2000. Vandiemenia ratkowskiana. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1

Bryopteris gaudichaudii
A liverwort found in Madagascar and Reunion. The species has a fragmented distribution within a range of less than 10km^2.

[1] Bryophyte Specialist Group 2000. Bryopteris gaudichaudii. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.

Phycolepidozia exigua
A unique liverwort which occurs on the island of Dominica. Though the species has not been found since the only known population was destroyed, other species with similar requirements have been rediscovered on the island.

[1] Bryophyte Specialist Group 2000. Phycolepidozia exigua. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.
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