Endangered Species 2010 Series main post.
Click the link for Dicots: Part 1.
Dicotyledons are a group of angiosperms (flowering plants) distinguished from that other angiosperm group, the monocots, by a number of distinctions including: seeds exhibiting two embryonic leaves (monocots have one); flower parts in multiples of four or five; reticulated leaf veins; ringed stem vascular bundles; roots developing from a radicle. Though there is debate surrounding the relationship between dicots and monocots and indeed the status of specific taxa, for the purposes of this list the dicots are defined as taxa of the class Magnoliopsida.
 Speer, B. (N/K). Monocots vs. Dicots. University of Berkeley. [online]
Capá rosa (Callicarpa ampla)
C. ampla is a perennial tree shrub which inhabits lower humid montane forests of Puerto Rico. The population is fragmented across half a dozen sites all within the Palo Colorado forest in the Luquillo mountain range; there are approximately 30 individuals remaining. It is threatened by certain forest management practises such as plantation maintenance and cutting, habitat destruction, collection and hurricanes.
 World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Callicarpa ampla. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.
 Grupo Editorial EPRL. (2009). Callicarpa ampla (capá rosa). Puerto Rico Encyclopedia. [online]
Image © Luis Rivera
Bois dentelle (Elaeocarpus bojeri)
This species is a native of the high cloud forests of Mauritius. The endemic flora of Mauritius has been widely decimated by invasive species. Indeed, the bois dentelle is now only located on a single hill (Piton Grand Bassin ) close to an Indian temple; the hill itself has been invaded and E. bojeri directly affected by guava (Psidium cattleianum) and Litsea monopetala, an evergreen shrub. Propagation of seeds from a transplanted individual and grafting attempts have been successful. However, fewer than 10 adult trees remain in the wild.
 Page, W. 1998. Elaeocarpus bojeri. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.
 Global Trees Campaign (2010). Bois dentelle. Glocal Trees Campaign. [online]
Snowdonia hawkweed (Hieracium snowdoniense)
I couldn’t let this list pass by without mentioning this rarity from my home country (and indeed, my home county for three years) . The Snowdonia hawkweed was discovered in 1892 and was not classified as a distinct species until 1955. 1n 1967, it was thought to have gone extinct due to excessive grazing. The species was rediscovered in 2002 and is now considered to be one of the rarest plants in the world. It grows on rocky, inaccessible north-facing cliffs and it is thought that the species has long been restricted in range and abundance. Though seeds have been collected for propagation, there currently exists but one known specimen in the wild. Thus the location of this specimen is protected and proactive management to remove grazers, prevent rock-fall, etc. is a priority.
 ARKive (2010). Snowdonia hawkweed (Hieracium snowdoniense). ARKive.org. [online]
 Rich. T. C. G. (2003). Conservation of Britain’s biodiveristy: Hieracium snowdoniense (Asteraceae), Snowdonia Hawkweed. Watsonia. 24. P 513 – 518. [available online]
Note: Not yet assessed by the IUCN but falls under CR criteria.
Image © Tim Rich.
Found on Robinson Crusoe Island (appropriately named, for the island is where the real Robinson Crusoe was stranded in C18) in the South Pacific, this member of the Asteracea (sunflower) family vies with the aforementioned Snowdonia hawkweed for the title of ‘World’s Rarest Plant’ as there is but a single specimen remaining in the wild (other individuals have been propagated ex-situ). The island itself has a total area of around 50km^2 and what endemic flora remains is subjected to grazing by introduced rabbits and goats and fast-growing, adaptable, aggressive invasive plants.
 World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Dendroseris neriifolia. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1
Dipterocarpaceae includes the familiar giant (40 – 80m) rainforest trees of South America, Africa, the Seychelles, India, Indochina, Indonesia and Malaysia. While I do not intend to place a family level taxon on these lists again, it seemed appropriate in this instance; of the 500 extant species of dipterocarp, over half (approximately 280) are listed as critically endangered by the IUCN. The primary threat to these species is, as ever, habitat loss, habitat conversion and harvesting. In Indonesia, vast swathes of land have been variously burned, logged and converted into oil palm, rubber or industrial timber plantations. Other regions have been affected by oil and coal exploration and wetland drainage. As these species are significant contributors to large and extremely speciose rainforests, ecosystem function will be compromised well in advance of their eventual demise which will, in turn, inevitably have countless significant and irreversible knock-on effects.
“Currently more tropical timber is extracted from Borneo than all of Latin America and Africa combined. The success of the timber industry In Kalimantan is threatening its own survival by destroying this delicately functioning and interconnected ecosystem.” 
 Sardjono, M.A. (1996). The Lembo system: a model for agroforestry in dipterocarp forest ecosystems of East Kalimantan. In: Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management. Schulte, A., Schone, D. (eds.). World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd. P 354 – 368.
 Butler, R.A. (N/K). Borneo. Mongabay.com. [online]
 Appanah. S. (1998). Introduction. In: A review of dipterocarps: taxonomy, ecology and silviculture. Appanah. S., Turnbull, J.M. (eds.). Center for International Foresty Research. [Available online]
 Butler, T. (2005). Deforestation in Borneo Kalimantan at the crossroads: Dipterocarp forests and the future of Indonesian Borneo. Mongabay.com. [online]
Image © K. Erickson
Hawai’i Lady’s Nightcap (Bonamia menziesii)
This species is a vine or liana which classically inhabits steep slopes and level ground in dry, coastal, mesic and mixed mesic forests on the Hawai’ian islands of Hawai’i, Maui, Lana’i, Oahu and Kaua’i. The total population may be several hundred strong. However, it is thought that fewer than 250 of these are mature specimens. The species is threatened by agriculture, habitat development, fire and invasive flora and fauna.
 Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V. 2003. Bonamia menziesii. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2.
 Gray, A. (N/K). CPC National Collection Plant Profile: Bonamia menziesii. Center for Plant Conservation. [online]
Image © A. Tsuneyoshi
Sapphire dragon tree (Paulownia kawakamii)
P. kawakamii is, like many of the genus, a popular ornamental species due to its attractive blooms and foliage. Japanese tradition dictates the planting of a Paulownia next to the house for protection when a daughter is born; a wedding chest is eventually made from the timber. P. kawakamii is found in mixed evergreen forest of the Chiayang area, Taiwan. The most recent survey in 1998 described only 13 mature trees due to the combined threats of habitat conversion for apple and peach orchards and exploitation for timber.
 Pan, F.J. 1998. Paulownia kawakamii. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2.
 Kirkham, T., Fay, M. F., (2009). 645. Paulownia kawakamii. Curtis’ Botanical Magazine. 26:1-2. P 111 – 119.
Hidden-petal Indian Mallow (Abutilon eremitopetalum)
As the common name attests, this species is indeed a member of the mallow family which includes okra and the infamous cacao, or cocoa tree. A. eremitopetalum is a shrub endemic to the dry forests and shrublands of Lana’i, Hawai’i. The only known population exists in an area of less than 10km^2 and is fenced off to protect the specimens from deer. This method of grazing prevention seems to have been effective as the number of individuals has risen from around 40 in the mid 90’s to around 100 as of 2003. However, introduced grazers (deer and mouflon sheep) remain a serious threat. Further threats include invasive plants, fire, drought and loss of pollinators.